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13.a. distinguish among types of markets;
CFA Program Curriculum (2014), Volume 2, Page 7.

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A market is any arrangement that enables buyers and sellers to get information and do business with each other. A competitive market is a market that has many buyers and many sellers so that no single buyer or seller can influence the price.

Broadly speaking there are two types of markets:

  • Goods markets are markets where final products from businesses or firms are exchanged. Households and firms are usually buyers, and firms are sellers.

  • Factor markets are markets for the factors of production. These factors include labor, capital, raw materials, and entrepreneurship, etc. For example, in labor markets, households are sellers and firms are buyers.
The demand for a factor exists because there is a demand for goods that the resource helps to produce. The demand for each factor is thus a derived demand; it is derived from the demand of consumers for products. For example, engineers are needed to design cars. A car manufacturers demand for engineers thus depends entirely upon the demand for cars. The demand for engineers is a derived demand.